The Traditional to egalitarian

A literature review of Fatherhood from the gender role perspective.


  • Elvi Yunianti University of Surabaya
  • Teguh Wijaya Mulya University of Surabaya
  • Nanik Nanik University of Surabaya


Father , Family , Feminism , Masculinity , Parenting , Gender role


In recent decades, works of literature on fatherhood noted a transition from the traditional father’s role into a new or modern role in caregiving. The traditional role in the parenting context determines the mother as the primary caregiver and the father as the breadwinner. However, this hierarchy contrasts with the patriarchal hierarchy that sets men as the supremacy or privileged party. Gender roles are socially constructed, causing upheavals at various times and places. The famous movement named feminism, brings a significant impact on the role of men and women, including the men’s role as a father in caregiving. Objective: This paper aims to briefly review fatherhood from the global conditions and specific to the conditions of fatherhood in Indonesia from the gender role perspectives. Method: A literature search was conducted to identify the relevant studies. Result: Fatherhood in Indonesia is strongly rooted in the traditional role model conditioned by the culture, religion, and patriarchal system. While it may be too early to assume that fathers in Indonesia will also move into the modern father role, a review of the studies suggests that Indonesian fathers will be following the global trend, considering the benefits of the new role for all family members.




How to Cite

Yunianti, E., Wijaya Mulya, T., & Nanik, N. . (2023). The Traditional to egalitarian: A literature review of Fatherhood from the gender role perspective. International Conference on Indigenous Psychology and Culture, 1(1), 27–37. Retrieved from