Implementation of Inverse Kinematics Method for Self-Moving on Hexapod Robot
Keywords:robot, hexapod, inverse kinematics, self-moving, servo motor, degree of freedom
The development of robotics is overgrowing with the increasing number of robot competition activities in Indonesia. One of the divisions in the Indonesian robot competition is smart robots. One of the obstacles in the smart robot competition is the uneven playing field. The design of the legged robot system is an option to overcome these obstacles. The smart robot has six legs resembling insects, often called a hexapod robot. This study aimed to determine the results of implementing the inverse kinematics method on the balance of the hexapod robot when doing self-moving. This research starts by designing the mechanical system of the hexapod robot, designing the self-moving, and testing the balance of the self-moving on the hexapod robot with the inverse kinematics method. The design of the mechanical system includes the design of the robot body layout, the design of the robot legs, the sensor settings, and the servo motor movement settings. Designing the hexapod robot body's layout includes determining the number of legs on the robot body, as many as six robot legs. While in the design of the robot legs, each robot leg has 3 degrees of freedom. A servo motor drives each angle of degrees of freedom on each leg of the robot, so the number of servo motors needed is 18. Furthermore, the design of the self-moving system includes the analysis of the coordinate transformation of the robot body and legs. The last stage is to test the self-moving balance using the inverse kinematics method on the hexapod robot. The test is carried out by determining the initial angle on each servo motor of each robot leg, then moving the robot leg on the Y axis from 72 to 78.9 to obtain a change in angle with the same pattern at the initial angle. This shows that the inverse kinematics method is suitable for adjusting the balance of the hexapod robot when doing self-moving.
A. Latif, H. A. Widodo, R. Rahim and K. Kunal, "Implementation of Line Follower Robot based Microcontroller ATMega32A," Journal of Robotics and Control (JRC), vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 70-74, 2020.
Pusat Prestasi Nasional, Panduan Kontes Robot Indonesia (KRI) Tahun 2022, Jakarta: Pusat Prestasi Nasional, Kementerian Pendidikan, Kebudayaan, Riset dan Teknologi, Republik Indonesia, 2022.
P. Arena, F. D. Pietro, A. L. Noce, S. Taffara and L. Patanè, "Assessment of navigation capabilities of Mini Cheetah robot for monitoring of landslide terrains," 2021 IEEE 6th International Forum on Research and Technology for Society and Industry (RTSI), pp. 540-545, 2021.
P. Biswal and P. K. Mohanty, "Development of quadruped walking robots: A review," Ain Shams Engineering Journal, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 2017-2031, 2021.
L. Fang and F. Gao, "Type Design and Behavior Control for Six Legged Robots," Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, vol. 31, no. 1, p. No. 59, 2018.
P. T. Tran-Ngoc, L. Z. Lim, J. H. Gan, H. Wang, T. T. Vo-Doan and H. Sato, "A robotic leg inspired from an insect leg," arXiv Preprint, p. arXiv:2203.10918, 2022.
Syahrul, "Karakteristik dan Pengontrolan Servomotor," Majalah Ilmiah UNIKOM, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 143-150, 2011.
M. Zangrandi, S. Arrigoni and F. Braghin, "Control of a Hexapod Robot Considering Terrain Interaction," arXiv Preprint, p. arXiv:2112.10206v1, 2021.
S. Y. Chen, "Agent-based Indoor Air Quality Control System," Sensors and Materials, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 1707-1726, 2019.
A. S. Sayed, A. M. Abdel Aziz, A. A. Mohamed and Y. M. Hassan, "Design and Control of an 18 DOF Hexapod Multi-agent Swarm for Search and Recue Missions," A thesis of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering, Nile University, Abuja, Nigeria, 2020.
M. Hernando, M. Alonso, C. Prados and E. Gambao, "Behavior-Based Control Architecture for Legged-and-Climber Robots," Applied Sciences, vol. 11, no. 20, p. 9547, 2021.
S. Rooban, S. D. Suraj, S. B. Vali and N. Dhanush, "CoppeliaSim: Adaptable modular robot and its different locomotions simulation framework," Materials Today: Proceedings, 2021.
G. Yashin, A. Egorov, Z. Darush, N. Zherdev and D. Tsetserukou, "LocoGear: Locomotion Analysis of Robotic Landing Gear for Multicopters," IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 138-147, 2020.
C. Ferraresi, C. D. Benedictis, D. Calvo, D. Sartirana and S. Belliardo, "Handling system design as part of the NUMEN experiment at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare," Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy, 2022.
S. Chandan, J. Shah, T. P. Singh, R. N. Shaw and A. Ghosh, "Chapter Two - Inverse kinematics analysis of 7-degree of freedom welding and drilling robot using artificial intelligence techniques," in Artificial Intelligence for Future Generation Robotics, Elsevier, 2021, pp. 15-23.
T. Dewi, S. Nurmaini, P. Risma, Y. Oktarina and M. Roriz, "Inverse kinematic analysis of 4 DOF pick and place arm robot manipulator using fuzzy logic controller," International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 1376-1386, 2020.
OscarLiang, "Inverse Kinematics for Hexapod and Quadruped Robots," OscarLiang, 2012. [Online]. Available: https://oscarliang.com/inverse-kinematics-implementation-hexapod-robots/. [Accessed 1 Jun 2022].
A. S. Wibowo, "Stability of Walking Robot (Hexapod) with Inverse Kinematics," Snatika, vol. 03, pp. 54-61, 2015.
Parallax, "Ultrasonic Distance Sensor," Parallax, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.parallax.com/product/ping-ultrasonic-distance-sensor/. [Accessed 1 Jun 2022].
Taufiqurrahman, A. Basuki and Y. Albana, "Perancangan Sistem Telemetri untuk Pengukuran Level Air Berbasis Ultrasonic," Prosiding Conference on Smart-Green Technology in Electrical and Information Systems, pp. 125-130, 2013.