Phytogeographical Distribution of Capparis decidua of Churu District, Rajasthan
As we know that the area under district ie. Churu district belongs to the State of Rajasthan, the State of Rajasthan is located in north-western India. From geographical spread point of view has extension from 27°24' to 29° north latitudes and 73°40' to 75°41' east longitudes. It is bounded by Hanumangarh in north, Bikaner in west, Nagaur in south and Sikar, Jhunjhunu districts and boundaries of Haryana State in the east.
The plant species- Capparis decidua belongs to the family-Capparaceae and it is a muchbranched straggling, glabrous shrub. It is leafless, except in young shoots only and these fall down at very early stage. In arid zone Churu district above 80 percent of the total plants are observed as in the form-shrub but below 20 percent are found as in the stage of tree in different habitats where it reached to height from 3 to 10 m.
Both take placed in the period of March to June months. The rhythem of flowering and fruiting of the species is biannual, ie. first flowering period remains from April to May followed by first fruiting period from May to June where as second flowering period runs from September to October which is followed by the second fruiting period from October to November.
It belongs to the vegetation group of shrub. Plant belongs to the class of ‘leafless’ and spiny as well as thorny under the xerophytic-categorisation for the flora of desert, and also from leaf-classes point o view. Due to more shruby by nature it falls under the group of ‘nanophanerophyte’ but sometimes it comes under the group of micro-phanerophytes when it attained the size as well as shape of a tree
The observations over the study sites scattered throughout the Semi-arid area of Churu district in different habitats show the nature of its distribution. This is a common plant as found throughout the area under study. Thus, by nature of its plant growth as well as for survival this shrub species is characterised by polyclimax tendency of succession. Due to its drought resistant character its development coincides in most of the habitats with the prevailing desertic conditions.
It is a multipurpose economic shrub species and therefore out of five it covers four categories of applications or rather to say uses, which are; fuel, medicinal, edible, and commercial.
It covers the Afro-Asian region which falls under the tropical belt of the globe. The country sites which fall in this westward extension are; tropical African countries specially north-east Africa, Arabia, Upper Egypt, Iraq, South Iran, Baluchistan and Pakistan, and western India but has no eastward extension in India. In India, the areas which fall under distribution are Punjab, Haryana, U.P., M.P., Gujarat, Rajasthan and some southern parts of Decan plateau.
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